Skip to main content


Assembly Committee of Local Government
The Cortese-Knox-Hertzberg Local Government Reorganization Act of 2000 (Act) establishes procedures for local government changes of organization, including city incorporations, annexations to a city or special district, and city and special district consolidations.

Local agency formation commissions (LAFCos) have numerous powers under the Act, but those of primary concern are the power to act on local agency boundary changes and to adopt spheres of influence for local agencies. Among the purposes of LAFCos are the discouragement of urban sprawl and the encouragement of the orderly formation and development of local agencies.

Cortese-Knox-Hertzberg Local Government Reorganization Act of 2000 - Dec 2023

The Senate Governance and Finance Committee's publication:
This is the 3rd edition, December 2013, formerly known as "It's Time to Draw the Line".  

50 Years of LAFCos - A Guide to LAFCos-Dec2013

The State Senate Local Government Committee's Report:

Serving The Public Interest-SB 1458 and CSA Law Oct2008What's So Special About Special Districts-4thEd Oct2010

Peter Detwiler:

CA Within Limits-Research Notes on Local Boundary Laws-Dec2013

CA Special District Association:

Special District Laws Guide 2020Special District Board Member Handbook 2019Special District Formation Guide 2016

CA State Controller's Office:
In addition to accounting procedures, this manual also includes helpful information about special districts in general: what they are, governance, types, principal acts, etc.

Special Districts Uniform Accounting and Reporting Procedures-Dec2018

CA Water Foundation:

Know Your Options-A Guide to Forming Groundwater Sustainability Agencies-Sep2015

Little Hoover Commission:

Special Districts: Improving Oversight & Transparency-Aug2017

Public Policy Institute of CA:

California's Future Report-PPIC Jan2019

CALAFCO White Papers:

Planning for a Sustainable and Predictable Future-2022Metamorphosis of Special Districts-Updated July 2021State of the Art on Ag Preservation-Feb2018Sustainable Groundwater Management Act & LAFCo-Dec2016Creating Sustainable Communities & Landscapes-Oct2013The Good, the Bad and the Confusing-Protest Requirements-Oct2009
Join our mailing list